ASTM A923 – Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels
These test methods cover the detection of detrimental intermetallic phase in duplex austenitic/ferritic stainless steel to the extent that toughness and corrosion resistance is affected significantly. These test methods will not necessarily detect losses of toughness or corrosion resistance attributable to other causes. Test method A-sodium hydroxide etch test, test method B-Charpy impact test, and test method C-ferric chloride corrosion test shall be made for classification of structures of duplex stainless steels.
1.1 The purpose of these test methods is to allow detection of the presence of intermetallic phases in certain duplex stainless steels as listed in Table 1, Table 2, and Table 3 to the extent that toughness or corrosion resistance is affected significantly. These test methods will not necessarily detect losses of toughness or corrosion resistance attributable to other causes. Similar test methods for other duplex stainless steels are described in Test Method A1084, but the procedures described in this standard differ significantly from Test Methods A, B, and C in A1084.
1.2 Duplex (austenitic-ferritic) stainless steels are susceptible to the formation of intermetallic compounds during exposures in the temperature range from approximately 600 to 1750 °F (320 to 955 °C). The speed of these precipitation reactions is a function of composition and thermal or thermomechanical history of each individual piece. The presence of these phases is detrimental to toughness and corrosion resistance.
1.3 Correct heat treatment of duplex stainless steels can eliminate these detrimental phases. Rapid cooling of the product provides the maximum resistance to formation of detrimental phases by subsequent thermal exposures.
1.4 Compliance with the chemical and mechanical requirements for the applicable product specification does not necessarily indicate the absence of detrimental phases in the product.
1.5 These test methods include the following:
1.5.1 Test Method A—Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test for Classification of Etch Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 3 – 7).
1.5.2 Test Method B—Charpy Impact Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 8 – 13).
1.5.3 Test Method C—Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test for Classification of Structures of Duplex Stainless Steels (Sections 14 – 20).
1.6 The presence of detrimental intermetallic phases is readily detected in all three tests, provided that a sample of appropriate location and orientation is selected. Because the occurrence of intermetallic phases is a function of temperature and cooling rate, it is essential that the tests be applied to the region of the material experiencing the conditions most likely to promote the formation of an intermetallic phase. In the case of common heat treatment, this region will be that which cooled most slowly. Except for rapidly cooled material, it may be necessary to sample from a location determined to be the most slowly cooled for the material piece to be characterized.
1.7 The tests do not determine the precise nature of the detrimental phase but rather the presence or absence of an intermetallic phase to the extent that it is detrimental to the toughness and corrosion resistance of the material.
1.8 Examples of the correlation of thermal exposures, the occurrence of intermetallic phases, and the degradation of toughness and corrosion resistance are given in Appendix X1 and Appendix X2.
1.9 The values stated in either inch-pound or SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.