ASTM E1876 – Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young’s Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio by Impulse Excitation of Vibration
Significance and Use
5.1 This test method may be used for material development, characterization, design data generation, and quality control purposes.
5.2 This test method is specifically appropriate for determining the dynamic elastic modulus of materials that are elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic (3).
5.3 This test method addresses the room temperature determination of dynamic elastic moduli of elasticity of slender bars (rectangular cross section) rods (cylindrical), and flat disks. Flat plates may also be measured similarly, but the required equations for determining the moduli are not presented.
5.4 This dynamic test method has several advantages and differences from static loading techniques and from resonant techniques requiring continuous excitation.
5.4.1 The test method is nondestructive in nature and can be used for specimens prepared for other tests. The specimens are subjected to minute strains; hence, the moduli are measured at or near the origin of the stress-strain curve, with the minimum possibility of fracture.
5.4.2 The impulse excitation test uses an impact tool and simple supports for the test specimen. There is no requirement for complex support systems that require elaborate setup or alignment.
5.5 This technique can be used to measure resonant frequencies alone for the purposes of quality control and acceptance of test specimens of both regular and complex shapes. A range of acceptable resonant frequencies is determined for a specimen with a particular geometry and mass. The technique is particularly suitable for testing specimens with complex geometries (other than parallelepipeds, cylinders/rods, or disks) that would not be suitable for testing by other procedures. Any specimen with a frequency response falling outside the prescribed frequency range is rejected. The actual dynamic elastic modulus of each specimen need not be determined as long as the limits of the selected frequency range are known to include the resonant frequency that the specimen must possess if its geometry and mass are within specified tolerances.
5.6 If a thermal treatment or an environmental exposure affects the elastic response of the test specimen, this test method may be suitable for the determination of specific effects of thermal history, environment exposure, and so forth. Specimen descriptions should include any specific thermal treatments or environmental exposures that the specimens have received.
1.1 This test method covers determination of the dynamic elastic properties of elastic materials at ambient temperatures. Specimens of these materials possess specific mechanical resonant frequencies that are determined by the elastic modulus, mass, and geometry of the test specimen. The dynamic elastic properties of a material can therefore be computed if the geometry, mass, and mechanical resonant frequencies of a suitable (rectangular or cylindrical geometry) test specimen of that material can be measured. Dynamic Young’s modulus is determined using the resonant frequency in either the flexural or longitudinal mode of vibration. The dynamic shear modulus, or modulus of rigidity, is found using torsional resonant vibrations. Dynamic Young’s modulus and dynamic shear modulus are used to compute Poisson’s ratio.
1.2 Calculations are valid for materials that are elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic. Anisotropy can add additional calculation errors. See Appendix X1 for details.
1.3 The use of mixed numerical-experimental techniques (MNET) is outside the scope of this standard.
1.4 This test method may be used for determining dynamic Young’s modulus for materials of a composite character (particulate, whisker or fiber reinforced) or other anisotropic materials only after the effect of the reinforcement in the test specimen has been considered. Examples of the characteristics of the reinforcement that can affect the measured dynamic Young’s modulus are volume fraction, size, morphology, distribution, orientation, elastic properties, and interfacial bonding.
1.4.1 The effect of the character of the reinforcement shall be considered in interpreting the test results for these types of materials.
NOTE 1: The properties of the reinforcement will directly affect measured elastic properties. Data shown in (1)2 indicates the possibility of underestimating the dynamic Young’s modulus by as much as 20 % due to anisotropy
1.5 This test method should not be used for establishing accurate dynamic Young’s modulus, dynamic shear modulus, or Poisson’s ratio for specimens that have cracks, voids, or other major structural discontinuities.
1.6 This test method may be used for determining whether structural discontinuities exist in a specimen by comparing results with a specimen that is defect free.
1.7 This test method shall not be used for establishing accurate dynamic Young’s modulus, dynamic shear modulus or Poisson’s ratio for materials that cannot be fabricated in uniform rectangular or cylindrical cross section.
1.8 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.